Study Guide, Sorted by Date

History of Canadian Art, December 2018 

Homer Watson, The Pioneer Mill 1878-1879 
The son in law of queen Victoria purchased the painting. Sold in 1880, the painting is hung in Windsor castle today.  Homer Watson painting in Barbizon style in Canada. It was there, in 1880 that Watson sold to the Governor General The Pioneer Mill which was purchased as a gift for Queen Victoria. The painting sold for $300. This solidified Watson’s decision to pursue a career as an artist. Watson was inspired by the au plain air style of renaissance Europe and the stylistic landscape carried on to depict the northern Canadian landscape through the early 1800'shis paintings resembled a photograph with great attention to detail. Later in his life, his paintings began to resemble abstract art with very wide brush strokes

William Breymer, Early Moonrise in September 1889  
Born in Scotland, moved to Canada. A mix of barbizon and impressionist work, the painting is expressing and painted the back landscape a idolized landscape. The brushwork is very loose and expressionistic,  focusing on the centre of the painting. As exemplified by Early moonrise in September (1899), his interpretation of the Canadian landscape grew more painterly and concerned with atmospheric effects. Studied architecture in Paris. Taught other great painters such as Holgate, who began studying art at an early age, under the tutelage of William Brymer. 

Mary Heister Reid, Crysthanumns, A Japanese Arrangement 1890, 1990 
During the 19th and early 20th century, at the time of her schooling, women were rarely allowed to pursue art as a career. She met her husband George Agnew Reid through her studies and although they both attended art school, Mary was restricted to traditionally feminine themes, and in turn became known for her flower paintings. She was one of the first women to show at The National Gallery of Canada. 

Reid was inspired by limited palette of Diego Velazquez Artwork exemplified, contemporary life in the city. Japanese flower that symbolizes death, on the back wall there is a framed Japanese print. The first woman to have a retrospective at the Art Gallery of Toronto when she died in 1922 displaying 300 of her paintings. 

H. Mabel May, The Shell Factory, 1919 

Based in Quebec early in her career, and later in Vancouver, she was a well-known painter and member of multiple important Canadian art groups, including the Art Association of Montreal, the Beaver Hall Group and the Canadian Group of Painters. Her works have been displayed at the Canadian War Memorial, National Gallery, the Vancouver Art Gallery and many smaller galleries throughout Quebec. She has been commonly referred to as the "Emily Carr of Montreal"[1] due to her interest in landscape and nature. Her art was influenced by her avid interest in French Impressionism

Studied under William Breymer, May was influenced by Brymner’s teachings of French modernism, including Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, and his encouragement for students to find their own individual style. 

Commissioned by the Canadian war efforts resulted in the paintings which influenced Mabel May as she was actually painting a number of women working in an ammunitions factory...  She created view and perspective of the scene that she would not otherwise have access to. Several painters had access to the Canadian War Memorials program which utilised an impressionist technique. Untraditional work, a number of women working in a factory, and is breathtaking. Women working outside of the home as more acceptable, strong and independent. 


Hellen Galloway Mc Nicholl, In The Shadow of a Tree, 1914 
McNicholl was praised constantly for her skill in painting sunlight, she played an important role in popularizing Impressionism in Canada at a time when it was still relatively unknown. Helen began her first serious art training under William Brymner* at the Art Association of Montreal. Example, the picture of a woman in a sleigh with a parasol and the area around the woman speckled with light the image is particularly of interest because of the way that she paints light and shadow. Mc Nicoll often painted women, especially women in a quiet life in the country. Traditionally feminist subjects and a favourite theme in her painting.

Tom Thompson, The Pine Tree, 1916 
They showed the previous place and what the official number was in the group of seven. When Thompson died in 1917 the group thought they lost their guide. In the painting he originally did a sketch on location in the summer months, the final sketch. He completed the sketch and had a wonderful design experience, he could see the stylized tree branches and strong colour. 

The painting was stylized in form and held graceful composition, simply the motif of a tree on a rocky shore. Iconic grandeur, again he was in the group of seven. He produced less then most in his accumulation of painting, he has a yellow background and a number of elements in stylized  history. Stylized for the sculpture and painting, he has a sense of movement and dynamism. Capturing the vitality of the Jack Pine. 

    Lawren Harris, Red House with Yellow Sleigh 1919 
    One of the few artists in the group of seven who painted city and town.  Red house with yellow sleigh displays a post impressionist work reviewing one of the poorer areas of Toronto. He does so in a manner that is reminiscent of Cezanne or Monet, he is making use of a bright colour palate and rough brush stripes and details typical of post impressionistic work. 

      David Milne, 1920, The Boston Corners

      New York landscape, Milne emphasizes the line in the painting. He was the last of 10 children born to Scottish immigrant parents. His early education was in Paisley, followed by high school in Walkerton, Ontario. He performed well in school and soon after graduated began teaching in a country school near Paisley. 

      His series of paintings that are most popular incurred after studying and working in New York for several years and moving to The Boston Corners with his wife. He fought in world war two and painted battlefields in France and Belgium as well as portraiture in Kimmel Park Camp in England. Died in December 1953. 

      Emily Carr, Indian Church 1929 aka Yuquot Village

      A church at  the settlement village Yuquot. The church is surrounded by organic work, graveyards with small white crosses marking graves. Landscape as transformation, when Emily Carr was painting the land was under impact from pressure imposed upon by British settlers. 

      The land was overwhelming with vitality, a white church and white crosses marking graves on the side. Visually the church could be overtaken by wilderness. She documented the gradual influence of missionaries who sought to convert the natives. 

      She was very fascinated when she arrived in 1928, the AGO had renamed the church Yuquot Village as the church burned down and has been replaced.

      The AGO has scrubbed the word Indian from the title of a panting of the late Canadian artist Emily Carr because the word causes pain, instigated by curator Georgiana Uhlyarik although it is often seen as over the top and patronizing. Some people think the change is good, and is scared by what happened. If you go to the ago there is a place next to the painting documenting the change. The name change is a hypothetically a bad idea, because the original title marks how far society has come and it rectifies the issue that there has been mad tragedy in the past.

      Bertram Brooker, Sounds Assembling, 1928
      Moved to Toronto, he was painting by 1926 through abstract shapes and forms. In 1927 he held his first exhibition, organized by his friend Lawren HarrisHe supported his painting by working as a freelance journalist, trying to capture the dynamism of sound and the rushing forward of colour and light. This is actually in a Winnipeg art gallery, some historians consider him the father of modern Canadian abstraction. People hated his work as he was a man well before his time. Explosive cosmic energy. the way the colours combine and rebound endlessly, underlying musical tones to the painting.

      Prudence Heyward, Girl resting in the shade of a tree, 1931
      Heyward, a white female nude, she had apparently hung the painting in her bedroom. The women in the painting seemed out of place, she is actually lying in a semi dark area so she is not suntanning. The painter AY Jackson though that this was the best nude in Canada. Included in December 1931 group exhibition. The body is carefully modelled and sculpted contrasted on the background appearing in the background and was proclaimed to be the most significant nude in Canadian history to date although record and documentation is somehow sparse. 

      JWH, Jock McDonald, Indian Burial, Nootka 1937 
      MacDonald was initially inspired by the Group of Seven's work but began painting abstracts in 1934. Abstraction allowed Macdonald the freedom to create pictures that had no apparent subject matter. He could blend and layer colours on his canvas without worrying whether some people would have difficulty understanding his subject. He continued to paint abstract for quite sometime, later adding Surrealist elements into his work. A member of painters eleven, Toronto’s first abstract society, painting the tow landscapes where a minister, a grave in the centre that is cut where the first nations man on either side, and a totem. A series of first nations people displaying his return to Vancouver. Nootka, the work has an interesting composition, it has a number of burial plots that create such an image, a group of mourners, a strong vertical focus on the centre. 

      Paul Emile Bourduas, Automatisme 4.17, 1947,


      Spontaneous style of nonfigurative painting, inspired by surrealism and impressionist automatism painting. Automatiste painting, that was meant to be spontaneous. The birds eye view of a landscape, in what would appear to be water and what is abstract. The number and the title of the painting at 1.47 the first canvas to be painted in 1947. It creates an interesting background. He painted the ground as the paintbrush, he painted using a palette knife and makes the forms float through the foreground.

      For a long time this canvas was dated 1948, the year the manifesto Refus global was published. When biomorphic forms are suggested, as they are here, the use of a palette knife enables Borduas to avoid the soft forms typical of the style of the painting. This photo, in which Borduas is seated beneath his painting and surrounded by several of his young friends, communicates the importance of the canvas to the group. Leeward of the Islanddepicts an island seen from above whose shores are visible on the right. Green, red, white, and black elements appear above, as if suspended between sky and earth. The landscape format of the Automatiste oil paintings is reaffirmed in this work. The work was originally titled “Automatisme 1.47”; it was Bernard Teyssèdre who identified it as the same painting as Leeward of the Island.1

      Surrealist Salvador Dalí (1904–1989). Borduas always maintained a distance from what he called “dreamlike Surrealism.3  He increasingly favoured the palette knife, which gave a “mineral” character to his images that explicitly resemble cliffs, the mountain faces at Saint-Hilaire, rocks, sea ice, or glaciers—features that are reflected in the titles of many of his paintings.

      Anne Kahane, Political Prisoner 1953
      Born in ViennaAustria. Kahane immigrated to Canada with her family in 1925, settling in Montreal at the age of 5. Kahane's entry for the international sculpture competition organized in 1953 by the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London. 

      The figure’s slumped posture and the visual vocabulary suggest confinement and torture. Made of bronze-painted copper tubing, the human figure bristles with spikes that recall barbed wire. The monument project fell through for lack of agreement on where to install it. Kahane's maquette for The Unknown Political Prisoner Monument was the only Canadian entry to take a prize at an international sculpture competition organized by the Institute of Contemporary Arts in LondonEngland (1953). 

      While no financial prize was received from the competition, the reward carried with it prestige that warranted the artist an invitation to join the Society of Canadian Sculptors in 1952.

      However, this model marked a significant break with the realistic sculpture that predominated in Canada at that time. Anne Kahane was the first Canadian woman to participate in the Venice Bienalle. 

      Guido Molinari, Equilibrium 1959 
      Molinari was born in MontrealQuebec to Italian heritage with his parents from Cune. He practised abstraction in New York, inspired by Barnett Newman, and Jackson Pollock, then returned to Montreal where he produced some of the finest pieces of his career. 

      Molinari believed that structure, dynamism and chromatics in time, one of the early french artists who did a study of work. Molinari believed that “structure was a synthesis between the temporal dynamic created by the rhythmic mutation of the colours from left to right & the inherent chromatic dynamism of each stripe. The result was a fundamentally unstable space created afresh by each act of looking. 

      Joyce Weiland, Boat Tragedy 1964
      Light fragments painting the series of disaster paintings where she painted sinking boats plane crashes, reduces the visual information to all that is required. It is very simple, you don't see anything. A simple white triangle and its dependence into the ocean it becomes easy to visualize the boats and the waves. Wieland reduces the visual information required to construct these scenarios. In some frames the boat consists of little more than a white triangle to suggest a sail, and the sea is indicated by an expanse of striated blue paint. Despite this shorthand the geometric shapes are intelligible as objects and spaces, and it is easy to empathize with the boats that have starring roles in these quasi-cinematic sequences. Wieland devises a clever way of manipulating the viewer’s emotional response. The little bobbing boat in Boat Tragedy may be absurd, but it is difficult to remain aloof from the drama, and from the sense of a tragic ending.

      Joyce Weiland, Rat Life and Diet in North America, 1968 
      Rats experimental film tells story of rats held as political prisoner, used to propagate protests against Vietnam War. Cinematic convention. Short film that tells a story about rats (actually pet gerbils) held as political prisoners in the United States (their jailer a cat), who make a heroic escape to Canada. Although this narrative is recounted through wryly worded intertitles, Wieland’s film nonetheless conveys a sense of menace and urgency. For these protagonists “Canada” becomes a utopian destination, promising abundance, pleasure, and peace. The film was created in 1968, a time of international student protests against the military and capitalist establishments, the rise of the New Left, and worldwide demonstrations against the Vietnam War; many young American men were fleeing to Canada to avoid being drafted into the military. 

      Jack Chambers, Victoria Hospital, 1970
      This is a painting of Victoria hospital. The painting is a very horizontal detailed landscape and has a lot of development.  The work also offers chambers practicality and the theories of conceptualism. Its truth when you look at Victoria hospital, the photograph he had taken for the painting was taken from the roof. 

      Chambers is known for his theory of perceptual realism which detailed arts profound and spiritual relationship with primary sensory experience. Photography was a tool, painting and film were the veaehikes of spiritual enlightenment.  35 thousand dollars, finance was important because he wanted to leave his family financially secure. Curnoe’s second painting of Victoria Hospital, conceptual painting that described the view from his studio using only text. The painting ofVictoria Hospital is more Pop Art but has conceptual elements. Painted views from studio window… 

      Greg Curnroe, View of Victoria Hospital, 1969-1971 

      Norwal Morriseau, Androdgeny 1983 
      Representation of life and the connection between all beings. Made by a thunderbird in the centre, head is facing to the right which shows Morrison’s notions of gender identity, at the centre of the painting he has painted a painted cosmic universe, and the outstretched wings of the thunderbird shows the basis of being. It also shows a solitary in individuality within the continued generation. A spirit figure is surrounded by other spirit beings. A snake coming up from the ground, people coming up from the ground. 

      Inside all living beings there is a spirit that is worth a life form, there is a snake coming out of the ground and reaching into the image, snakes sometimes represent something evil although the snakes are still a symbol of life. Mural painted in order to paint his vision of a united Canada. A decolonizing gesture of reconciliation. The theme of the Mural is a shaman is filled with all purger and greatness in Canada, flowers animals and children of mother earth. The government is dedicated the mural to the people. The art is on display at Rideau Hall in Ottawa. Anishunaabe artist who transforms the ideas and traditions of Anishwaabe culture, Painted for the people of Canada. The Indian group of seven, at the centre of the canvas, ect. he has the outstretched wings ect. Future generations and time space of being. 

      General Idea, File Magazine No. 1 Vol. 1 1972 
      Group re-exemplifeied the nature of mass culture, general ideas work, as well as other artists. They were very interested and very interested in subverting social structure. They first published Fire in 1972, they were responding to life magazine with the way that they used the image. The artists work as well as other complications that extended performances in the explanation in 1974 that were used in 1974. 

      Jean Paul Riopelle, La Joute 1970 
      Riopelle refused to identify stylistically with anyone in the group, abstract expressionism, medium and colour, by the late 1960’s is marked by the gradual reform and identification of reform. Fountain and monument 30 min sequence of mist and fire. Works only in the night, runs human and animal figures. 30 min long sequence of water mist and fire, located in Montreal. 
      1. Lisa Steele, Birthday Suit with scars and defects, 1974. 
      When she turned 27 she decided to do a tape to document her body and form in time, the take goes over the extent of her body and form. She is completely nude in the video and therefore groundbreaking. Woman artists who use their bodies in their art. Her birthday, displaying her “ birthday suit” with scars and defects, specifying the date and the time where she had receive the scar. 

      Rebeca Belmont, Ayum-ee-aawach Oomama- mowan : Speaking to their mother, 1991
      Incorporates sculpture performance often addresses history and time. What happens is a film of this, a mix of media where people go up towhees people and speak to the ear which is their mother, addresses colonialism racism Ect. with their photograph.

      Greg Curnoe, Whats good for the goose is good for the gander, 1983

      Ballpoint pen and paper, this is his response to criticism, Homage to vanguard sheila, criticized by a number of people complaining about the exploitation of his wife, he paints a self portrait of himself nude, awkwardly, painting himself looking at us, in the background is multicoloured circles resembling modern artist Robert Delinare 

      Stan Douglas, Nut-Ka 1996 

          Pre-Columbian native inhabitants of the Pacific Northwest in North America. similarly utilizes image bifurcation, this time to explore the history of colonialization on Vancouver Island, where English and Spanish fleets battled over trade routes in the 18th century. Films of the landscape—the only imagery shown—are superimposed on one screen so that the footage appears doubled. This formal effect is echoed by the soundtrack, which includes excerpts from the sea captains’ diaries, which become increasingly paranoid and irrational. At key moments in the narrative all visual and verbal elements meld together in exquisite clarity. Spanish and British explorers where there is an indigenous production, hydroponic sound where there is a single channel post production. One of the most noticeable things about projection is the image provocation. Superimposed on the screen, a third soundtrack made up of excerpts of diaries that become paranational. Elements meld together to become one experience. 

          Janet Cardif & George Bures Miller, The Paradise Institute. 2001 
          A plywood pavilion, two stories going on simultaneously. It has an accompanied soundtrack with the spectators where Cardiff investigates perception in various environments. It is actually a mix in multi medium, the other individual in the audience experiences it when the put the headphones on. The sound seems to be coming from in side the theatre. The film is shot from the back of theatre from the perspective of the protector.

          Napachie Pootoogook, Male Dominance 1995-1996

          She took up drawing, she drew personal space provided by others and it is basically tells the story of abusive story by men ( Inuit )

           Translation of artist’s Inuktitut inscription: “Aatachaliuk is scaring women to ensure his domination, before he claims them as wives, after slaying his male enemies.  He did this to hide his soft side.”

          In Male Dominance, Napachie presents the viewer with another disturbing scene: a man who has murdered the husbands of five women so he can claim them as his own.  The man looks out from the page with a self-satisfied smile while the women, who are connected to each other and to the man by a rope, are clearly frightened and grief-stricken.  Inuit women were often abducted against their will to become a man’s wife.  Sometimes, if a desired female was already married a man would simply kill her husband and claim her as his own.  Considering the vast expanses and harsh environment of the Arctic, there wasn’t much the women could do, especially if they became pregnant. They were at the mercy of the man and all they could do was hope for the best.  If they resisted or rebelled, they were subjected to beatings.

          Rebecca Belmore, 2001, Fountain 

          Atom Egoyan, Adoration Street, 2008 
          Installation for Nuit Blanche in Toronto, located by the hart house theatre near u of t, depicting a suburban street in the suburbs. The projections were taken from adoration from self exploring technologies and images of self through webcams. 


          VISA 2006
          Fur trapping in northern Canada and the modification of the northern provinces. Gradually European diseases came to the far north and desolated the population. Around the time of World War Two the Canadian government forced the Native American cultures to give up their children and extrapolating them, forcing them to live primarily on the land. Two different types of trapping developed between independent and commercial. Different types of hunting styles, one exploitative and one for means to survival. 

          Around 1945 the Canadian artist and theoretician James Houston became prevalent, with the help of government practices, his work resources Inuit society in order to gain self sufficiency and independence aside from subsidized government funding. Producing sculpture below the Arctic Circle, the Inuit quickly developed an international market for their art. Many focused on themes and subject in relation to immediate cultural prevalence. 

          Johnny Inukpuk, Incucdjouac Quebec, b.1911 

          Quickly became a leading Inuit sculpture in the 1950’s after James Houston’s first visit to the Hudson Bay. Carved a number of works resourcing the materials made available to him via natural resource and through the land. Sculptures made of tusk, ivory or bone were popular souvenirs to local tourists and were outsourced as cultural icons, distributed through Southern Canada. 

          Johnny Inukpuk “ Mother & Child Playing String Games” 1955, Amulet 
          Initially carved of stone, ivory or bone, amulets expressed the animistic universe, eventually converted many Inuit to continually make work in the Christian tradition. A number of Inuit artists continued to make shamanistic sculptures. The noted sculpture ( Mother & Child Playing String Game) was too large to be carried. The sculpture depicts the mother carrying her child in a traditional Inuit baby carrying trapeze. 

          Johnny Inukpuk “  True Story of Johnny Being Attacked by Three Bears While in His Igloo” 1974
          This is a drawing depicting a hunting story, where upon during a hunting trip he was encountered by three polar bears, he initially fought off the polar bears with his weapon and after made the drawing to depict the story. He was protecting his wife who was trapped in the igloo while he was outside post-hunting trip where he was attacked by, the bears. How many bears? Three. Three Bears. 

          Osuitok Ipeelee ( 1922 - 2005 ) 
          From a family of carvers, born at Neeouleeutakik camp in Nunavut in 1922. He came from a family of carvers long known for skill and delicacy of their fine art. Printmaking at the time was borrowed from Japanese tradition, the Inuit were incredibly good at modifying the rendering on paper and the development had derived from the unique traditions passed on through globalization.

          Osuitok Ipeelee “ Own with Fish in Beak “  1965
          A mermaid captured depicted in ivory,  the figurine was carved through immense experience and expertise as Ipeelee had began carving at the young age of 15. He was one of the earliest and youngest sculptures to be working for the purpose of trade exportation. The sculpture was known for its very delicate detail, the details in the eyes of the fish and the owl. The sculpture realistically depicts an owl catching a fish, hence its mermaid like qualities. 

          Osuitok Ipeelee “Woman Fishing “ late 1960’s 
          The hand of the woman holding a traditional hunting device endured in the process of capturing a fish. Seems to be smiling, holding the baton on which she has captured the fish. The kind of reality re-exemplified the nature of the materials which are scarce and therefore the reality of life up north and the scarcity of resource.. 

          Osuitok Ipeelee : Musk Ox 1975 
          The delicate incising done in the sculpture, by looking at the sculpture noting the delicate engravings in the sculpture defines the expertise in the artists learned experience. The work is not institutionalized and therefore stands apart from the rhetoric of commercialized European trend that had developed through abstraction and contemporary works through the mainstream. 

          Osuitok Ipeelee “ Owl With Wings Raised” 1999
          The bird, an owl in a state of balance which depicts the expertise in sculpture. The artist was able to develop this entity by holding things in his hands as he sculpted, in order to determine a stronger sense of balance and unity.

          Osuitok Ipeelee : Reclining Caribou 2000 
          A reclining caribou with antlers in a ivory extension. The caribou looks to the sky in a kneeled position, the work is carved of dark marble or stone and instigates an pacifistic and vulnerable nature. 

          Napachie Pootoogook 1938-2002
          Mother of six, Pootoogook was born at the island of Saaru in 1938, she was the only daughter of Pitseolak and Ashoona Pootoogook. Her work explores local history, customs and folklore. She began working on a series of autobiographical drawings in the late 1960’s. 

          I have noticed a change in my style of drawing. Back in the early days I used to draw what I had heard from my mother, the things she used to talk about from long ago. I didn’t ask my mother’s opinion of what I was going to draw, but when I heard stories from my mother, I drew them the way I pictured them. I drew what I had heard about. Nowadays, Jimmy [Manning ] asked me to start drawing what I had seen, what I had started seeing nowadays. So that’s how I started drawing things like the one with the new
          accordion. It’s what I’ve seen. It’s not what I’ve heard about.”

          - Napachie Pootookgook, as quoted by Jean Blodgett, In Cape Dorset We Do

          It This Way: Three Decades of Inuit Printmaking, 121. 

          Napachie Pootoogook Eskimo Camp Scene 1961 
          Print. The experimental elements in western convention, a group of people inside an igloo. A mother with her babies strapped to her back cooking inside of the igloo. A father is with them who is depicted as outside playing with the dogs. The work appealed to early collectors of Inuit art. Inuit history is not often readily experienced these days, which it is relevant to the way that at the time, contemporary culture had carelessly ravished its way through its way of life. Only because she was able to sell her work was she able to support her family. 

          Napachie Pootoogook Sea Spirits 1964-5 
          Print. Reflects the movement, the animals are breathing and alive. The almost monochromatic print has an emblem in the mid right centre in red, depicting specifications about the artist and the nature of the work. Symbolic of place and time. Emblem also appears on " Eskimo Camp Scene" 

          Napachie Pootoogook “Mother and Child in Tent 1966-7 
          Illustration, in colour. The mother wears traditional Inuit garment, the child is strapped to her back. Depicts semi-nomadic life. Through 1966-1967 most Inuit people have moved into permanent native settlements, or subsidized government homes on designated reserves. 

          NapachiePootoogook “ Preacher” 1966-7 
          The rival of christianity, many people had accepted it and some people who hadn't accepted it. The illustration depicts a group of figures in traditional Inuit garb outside of a tent. A man stands in what appears to be a grey suit, one arm elevated in a form of preaching to the figures seated on the ground in a circular format. The image is depicted in grey browns and blacks and yellows and coloured in pencil crayon. 

          Napachie Pootoogook : "Caribou in the hills" 1977 
          Colourful works on paper. Caribou in the distance, people depicted wearing traditional Inuit vests. Soft neutral colours which is what makes this a lovely print, depicted by the emblem in the bottom right hand corner. The image appears to be coloured with pencil crayons probably after the point in printing.  

          Napachie Pootoogook "Napachie Drawing in her Tent" 1984-5
          Woman in a geometric design depicting a tent holding some traditional Inuit tools. Small child to the left surrounded by objects and traditional Inuit tools. The woman is framed in the visual centerpoint, the tent or teepee is centralized over her head. 

          Napachie Pootoogook “ Aqatuk ( Singing Love Song)" 1993 
          A woman in a bed seated by a HBC blanket speaking to a small child to her left. The image is colourful and the Hudson's Bay Blanket colours emphasize the iconic participation in Canadian History. The furs and the bright colours symbolize wealth and prosperity. 

          Napachie Pootoogook : "Suicide 199?"
          Exhibited in the Winnipeg 2004 art gallery, showing both the good and bad sides of Inuit history. Violence, murder, suicide and abuse and cannibalism. The image is an illustration, devoid of colour and very intensively and meticulously detailed. A man is in the centre of the image a suspended nude, having hung himself in the middle of the space. Family and friends are depicted about the hanging body grieving.

          Apache Pootoogook "Male Dominance" 1995 -6 
          A black and white depiction of a smiling man threatening 5 women in traditional garb, with a knife after killing the husband. He is in the centre holding a knife that he is brandishing at surrounding women who had been abducted. The husband killed in order to have accommodated his wives and children. The culture would entitle him to accommodate the deceased male's assets and 'property'.

          Napachie Pootoogook “ Trading Women for Supplies” 1997-8 
          A black and white illustration with small text letters below the image. Sexual exploitation of intuit women by European traders, traded for goods and supplies resulting in mixed children. A man is depicted to the right holding a woman on her knees, handing a coat to an Inuit man in a hood. The image depicts desperation and human trafficking. 

          Napachie Pootoogook “ Eating Mothers Remains" 1999-2000 
          Depiction of cannibalism, child in a shelter or igloo due to prolonged famine where the child had eaten the mother who is depicted dead in the top left corner of the etching. 
          Napachie Pootoogook Interior View 2000 
          The image depicts women warm and smiling inside their igloo. 

          Napachie Pootoogook “ Lost in the Storm “ 2001 
          Two Inuit people in an abstract blue background with snow flurries in traditional garb. The image resembles a print with colour, the contrast in the beige and browns in the coats of the Inuit and the blue and teal of the surrounding background is aesthetically pleasing. The text below the sled ... 

          Annie Pootoogook 1969-2016 
          Born in Cape Dorset, NU in1969. The daughter of artist Napachie Pootoogoo and printmaker and carver Eegyvdlik Pootoogook. Her grandmother was Pitseolak Ashoona. Her uncle was Kananaginak Pootoogoo. Looking at topics such as alcoholism, suicide, domestic violence and depression. Her drawings represent the struggle in her life. Uses pen and coloured pencil. 

          Anne Pootogook “ Man on the Radio” 2006 
          Depicting the situation that was relocating the current moment in what was going on. Depicting a family and the hybrid nature of contemporary Inuit life. Displays the typeof housing that people are living in. The homes are prefabricated, there are a lot of problems with the architecture. The mother is preparing something for a child. 

          Annie Pootoogook “ Family Gathering Whale Meat” 2003-4 
          A family salvaging whale meat on the beach. depicted in colour, indicating modern elements. An image that remains entered on socialization and the preparation of community building. 
          Annie Pootoogook Pitseolak Drawing with Two girls on the bed 2006
          What she shows in this drawing is the end of her grandmothers life, the grandmother being visited by the two girls who had come to see her to watch her draw.  

          Annie Pootogook “ man trying to think” 2003-4
          A man trying to think about his electricity, to understand how to the light and his despair at the modern technology and innovation for the modern world and the indigenous decline. 
          Annie Pootoogook “ Mother Falling with Child 2003-4 
          Annie pulling from her partner her child after he has hither, her nose is bleeding and the lines indicating destress are animated. 
          Annie Pootoogook “ Man abusing his partner”
          Man holding a wooden board above his head threatening a woman in a corner, illustrated and depicted in pencil crayons. 

          Annie Pootoogook Memory of my life breaking bottles 2001 
          A woman standing outside of a home or shelter holding bottles over her head. Something that is unique that the culture is very open about the abusive and alchool nature of the men. 
          Annie Pootoogook Untitled Jenojuak and Annie with Governor General Michelle Jean 2010 
          Awarded a governor generals award and the drawing depicted her reception and what it was like to receive a governor generals award. 
          Geometric Art 
          Canadians began to respond to European artists such as Piet Mondrian Wassily Kandinsky, and Kazmir Malevitch. Conceptual realism. 

          Les Plasticiens. 
          Fernand Toupin “ Aire avecblanc differentiel 1956 
          Minimal, very limited colour palate. White black and grey. Shaping on the canvas following the lines with the logic of colour. Trying to accomplish and to realize the plastician ideal. Three dimensional in shape in 1956 at a non figurative art gallery. 

          Fernand Leduc L’Alpiniste1957
          Formally an automatiste, had returned to Montreal from Paris and moved away from realism to abstraction. Triangular and rigidity in shape, the two dimensional picture shape. Blue oranges, reds and yellow. He abandon the right angle. 
          Fernand Leduc “ Feu Rouge “ 1957 
          Very acute angle the vibrant musical energy to the artwork, instrumental in the non figurative association of Montreal in1956. 
          Guido Molinari Angle Noir 1956 
          Black and white angle, in the number of planes. the push and pull between light and dark contrast. Influenced by Piet Mondrian and Jackson Pollock who he had seen in. NYC in the early 1950’s. in the painting he was able to experience animation figure and ground in his work. Spacial structure. The white hitting the ground and the black hitting the ground. The paintings are constantly going. 

          Guido Molinari “ Quadri blanc” 1956
          Playing with the figure of ground and the weight of the black on the white. 
          Guido Molinari Huig Blank 1958 
          Dynamic asymmetry, summed the canvas up as a series of automatism works. Smooth black on white painting. Molinari’s painting are not static and are very dynamic. Wonderfully complex composition and quite simple. Emphasizing the relationship between elements. Compared to Paul Emile Borduas e.g.. Black Star has a very smooth texture and is anti-impasto in his use of material. 
          Guido Molinari Equilibrium 1959
          Molinari believed that structure was a synthesis between the temporal dynamic created by the rhythmic mutation of the colours from left to righting the inherent chromatic dynamism of each stripe. Molinari was a fundamentally unstable space created fresh by each act of looking. 
          Guido Molinari “ Mutation Seriale Vert-Rouge” 1964 
          Large colour field painting depicting a series if green red bye yellow and lime green bars. The bars are linked together. he is not concerned with balance, line and form. He is much more interested in repetition. He its simply changing the line and colour. 
          Guido Molinari “ Quantifactuer #19|” 1991 
          Here he entered the structure and concept, in the sequence and complex. 

          Piet Mondrian Broadway Boogie 
          Claude Tousignant “ La vierge au lit1964 
          his open and cereal colours, circular image in a square background. The only thing different is the colour. The unification of colour and the canvases, the variation of form. Hard edged painting distinguished by the early geometric structure. 
          Claude Tousignant “ Oeil de Vouff 1964 
          Work in the 1950’s was not well received although he was able to resume through 1962. Analytical language through colour ands structure. The colour and form of the structure. The painting is a three dimensional structure. 

          Claude Tousignant “ Stochastique en vert 1965 
          The unofficial concentric radiation around the centre. This basically sums up the radial nature of time and space. he is subversively creating an optical illusion as the American offer a three dimensional colour he creates a two dimensional space.
          Calude Tousignant Gong 1965 
          In the mid 1960’s he creates an indirect object, following the irreversible logic by creating a circular canvas deters from logic. 
          Claude Tousignant “ Gong 88. 1966. 
          Circular shape and simplified structure. His regular structure was multiplying through sporadic variations and systematic variations. With the shape of the canvases he gives colour an an exercise in intensity. 

          Claude Tousignant “ Accelerateur Chromatique” 1984”
          Hes intensified his sensation of motion in which he places colour next to one another. The colour is meant to be visually coincident and mesmerizing. it actually does move through the retinal signals in the eye in comparison to pop art. 

          First group of plasticizers painting retains emphasis inform and remnants of cubist space. Influenced by Joseph and Annie Albers. Worked on the material, colour and light. 

          Marcel Barbeau, Retine Viroltante 1966 
          Always working in geometric form and style, in his work what he was trying to explore was perceptual abstraction. He is painting through concentric painting, leading lines to the background. He has very linear style is very rudimentary, very simple contrast. He does not go beyond three colours. 
          Marcel Barbeau Untitield 1966 
          Inspired by the Op.Art in NYC, he was inspired by his own work and began to incorporate a sense of motion in his artwork. Colour becomes secondary to the form of the mind. There is an intense movement, the zigzags submersed by a light green overlay. 
          Marcel Barbeau "Retina Dont Bug Me" 1966 
          Kinetic thinking, undulating the lines on flat ground through the indeterminate sense of motion. The work that hypothetically creates the dynamic sense of motion. 
          Yves Gaucher “ Danse Caree” 1864 
          Trying to convey relationships in his work. He is constructed diamond shaped canvases and contrasting lines. He studied Joseph Albers 1962 dynamic understanding and sense of colour. 

          Yves Gaucher ‘ En hommage a Webern No.2” 1963 
          Eliminated objects in sense of form. Unlimited sense of geometric form and vocabulary. Squares, a series of dashes and embossed lines, the trace of a line and a structure. Instead lines and squares between asymmetrical and symmetrical structure. 

          Yves Gaucher “ Dusk Calm Signals “ 
          Expansion and symmetrical in contemplative experiment. Short lines. 

          Yves Gaucher “ Blue Raga” 1967 
          Blue lines on blue canvas. 
          Yves Gaucher: Alap” 1967 
          Series of signals, series of fifty paintings. Grey on blue paint. Very subtle colours, expanding line on a colour that resembles plaster. The ground is a natural grey background. Rhythmic openness with his painting. 
          Yves Gaucher "Two Blues and Two Greys" 1976 
          More relined and more simplified. Allowing colours to change the subtle aptitude the viewer. 

          Beginning Related Colour Forms 1957. 
          A strictly rectangular form in canvas. 
          Eli Bronstein Structuralist Relief No,1-1 1965 
          Influenced his choice in colour. Interested in the possibility of light and painting. He ended up working in paint and in sculpture. 
          Jack Bush zig-zag 1967
          Toronto, 1957 when the painters 11 invited Clement Greenberg to critique. Abstract expressionism and mannerism. Instructed Bush to paint thinner and fuller. Switches to acrylic paint, the oil is instructed by minimal nature. Divided the surface into 3 diagonal columns and then additional diagonal midlands through the painting. 
          What is ground and what is figure. 
          Frank Stella in David Mirvish: Frank Stella, seen by Jack Bush was influential in his 1961 works, improvised structure. 

          Kazuo Nakamur “ Hillside” 1954 
          His painting was resembling landscape, deep space. Created with abstract structures floating on the ground. The colour schemes were typically blues and yellows. 
          Inner Structure #5, 1955 
          Very strong sense of depth, black on blue. The lighter lines seem to fall back which adds to the feeling of darkness. 

          Structure 1956 
          Some of his later works, implies that the canvas which is emphasized that the dual form is on top. The canvas uses strong use of colour particularly his black structural use and the black and white sculpture. 
          Kenneth Lochead “ Left of centre” 1962 
          Painted in black enamel, the masonite took part of the work itself. The fact of the figure in its divisional state. Inner and outer square which are divided almost symmetrically. Uses different colours to create a formal dynamic. Squares and colours. Freedom in the painting. Not trying to be perfect. 

          Kenneth Lochead ‘ Dark GreenCentre 1963 
          Visually the centre is a green square. Very simplified form in the painting, shifts to 
          Doug Morton 2 plus 2. Presented with the totality, finally delimitated shapes which emerge through colour. Presented in the canvases in geometric biomorphic form. Very mobile feeling and playful in the relationship of the colour. 

          Ronald Bloore “ Painting No. 11” 1965 
          The visual language could and should communicate in the body language. Trying to create form in the painting. Very conceptual in regards to doing that, repetition in geometric form which gives order to the structure which creates order to the painting. 

          Roy Kiyooka, Aleph #2 1964 
          Interested in formal qualities, interest in photography. Clement Greenberg’s critiques. Shapes repeatedly in his work, the ovular shapes fascinated him.  Ellipse. Worked in Montreal, his paintings become simpler and less intellectual. 

          Red Bridge 1965.
          Red linearity two ovals, abstraction 
          Roy Kiuooka Shaula 1967
          Blue canvas, elipses in the darker blues to lighter blues. 

          Roy Kiooka On Vergence ( The Bridge 1969) 
          Brian Fischer “ Passage 1966” 
          Very geometric forms

          Gary Lee-Nova Mentol Filter Kings 1967 
          Playing with the natural identity of the cigarette package. 

          Pop Art 
          Joyce Wieland “ Boat Tragedy” 
          Painting mimicking the frames of film, sequential frame of a boat in motion. The white triangle of a boat slowly sinking, resembling the fragments of light in frame in motion. The series of work known as the disaster painting 1963-1966. The variations of the work, the sequence of outbound paintings. very simple art, boat tragedy. The boat slowly sinking. Reducing the visual nature of the painting. Simple geometric shapes. 
          Joyce Wieland “ The battery”
          Comic book language. The union jack symbol and the cross of st george. Playing around with the colour, an important development in art. The series of box forms, she provides the painting with a red light structure. Adapting with the nature of storytelling through a series of photographs and strips along the bottom of the painting. Borrowing the appearance and logic of forms, cinematic storyboards. Trying to create a new type of narrative painting. 

          Joyce Eieland Fine Foods 1963 
          Television frames, mimicking the storyboarding effects. Slices of reality fragments of reality, eating at a restaurant on a lake in the painting. 
          Joyce Wieland Boat Hommage to DW Griffiths 1963 
          Racist painting about the civil war. Important relevance to film in civil war history. In the second square. Looking through a telescope in the second frame. english flag. 
          Joyce Wieland "First Integrated Film with a Short on Sailing 1963 
          Two films on canvas. three vertical stacked films. Black man and a white woman are kissing. Three frames depicting a sailboat, referencing comic book through her speech emoticon. 
          Sailboat, 1967 
          Film Still, sailboat in yellow text. Space and time exploration in her canvases. Her partner is Michael Snow, sound is waves mixed with airplanes. capturing the canvas on the left side of the frame. Material qualities calling attention to the works. 
          Rat Life and Diet in North American 
          Political Prison, depicted life in North America after going to NYC with husband Michael Snow. 
          “The film is very meticulously shot and controlled, and even more than in Cat Food the colour and delicacy with which she approaches the animals and their surroundings creates very sensuous and textured images and relationships.”
          - Regina Cornwell, “The Films of Joyce Wieland,”54.